Scientific conference of the Department of Archaeology
Thursday, 1st December
9:00 - 9:20
9:20 – 9:45
Department of Prehistoric and Historical Archaeology, University of Vienna; LBI for Archaeological Prospection and Virtual Archaeology, Wien, Austria
Aerial reconnaissance of buried and submerged archaeological landscapes
Over the past decades, landscape archaeology has increasingly gained importance. Despite a large variety of different approaches, a tacit agreement consists in the fact that landscape archaeologists are investigating beyond the individual site, dealing with space at different scales. This has led many archaeologists as well as preservationists to enlarge their field of endeavour from sites towards archaeological landscapes.
Therefore, large-scale application of non-invasive archaeological prospection methods (e.g. aerial archaeology, airborne laser scanning and high-resolution near-surface geophysical prospection) comprise a great potential. They are the most appropriate solution in order to provide both landscape archaeologists and planning authorities with the necessary spatial information at multiple scales, ranging from the archaeological site to the entire archaeological landscape.
The presentation will therefore focus on a range of airborne prospection methods that can be applied on a landscape scale in a variety of environments. It will demonstrate the latest developments in aerial archaeology, airborne laser scanning, airborne imaging spectroscopy, and will finally discuss the possibilities and limitations of bathymetric sensor technique in the attempt to overcome the border between land and water.
9:50 – 10:15
Department of Archaeology, Faculty of Arts, Universitiy of Ljubljana, Slovenia
Lidar and landscape archaeology
Laser scanning describes any technology which accurately and repeatedly measures distance using laser pulse, by precise measurement of time needed for the laser pulse to travel from the object and back, and transforms these measurements into a series of points, or a point cloud, from which information on the morphology of the object being scanned may be derived. Airborne LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging), ALS or ALSM (Airborne Laser Scanning, Airborne Laser Swath Mapping) is an active remote sensing technique, which records the surface of the earth using laser scanning.
Lidar like photography and other visual technologies — does not produce only pictures, but extends our powers to detect, record and imagine landscapes.
Although topographic survey has a long tradition in archaeology, sheer density and quantity of data that became available with lidar has transformed into new quality. Lidar in contrast to traditional topographic survey, does not map only important places but everything, landscape as a whole. This allows us to see landscape a continuum of traces of daily practices and activities materialised in a landscape. By focusing on the practices and their material traces more attention should be given to the questions of time and temporality of landscape.
Coffe break (Library Foyer): 10:20 – 10:50
10:50 – 11:10
Institute of Archaeology, Zagreb, Croatia
The four seasons: advantages of all year round cyclic surveys in aerial archaeology
Aerial archaeology, as any other part of archaeology, has own set of procedures how to obtain optimal results. One of most important parameters is time of the year when survey is done. It is usually considered that optimal timing for survey is a time when the cereal crops ripens and change color from green to yellow. That is period of late spring until beginning of the summer, during May and June. Color contrasts are among highest in all year scale, and position of the Sun is highest above horizon. Size of financial resources also play an important role in the planning of research, often restricts continuous flying over the year and that is also cause for limiting survey on this time of the year only.
Development of low-cost UAVs is gapping the bridge between research and financial costs, and allows continuous research with minimal costs with greatly improved planning for more costly plane flights. Our paper will show advantages in this approach. We will cover and compare visibility of earthworks and archaeological features from period of early germination of grain and development of crops till harvest. Results will be integrated with soilmark and snowmark recordings obtained during winter.
11:15 – 11:35
Department of Archaeology, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, University of Zagreb, Croatia
Aerial photographs and spatial distribution of prehistoric stone mounds near Lumbarda
Stone mounds are a distinct feature of karst landscapes. Their formation can be caused by land clearance or stone quarrying, but they can also be formed intentionally as border markers, or in the case of prehistoric mounds, as burial places. The fact that they are essentially large mounds of stone, makes them easily visible from the air while their visibility from the ground can be extremely bad due to the dense karst vegetation. Since they can originate from different time periods and their original purpose varies, a field survey is necessary to confirm their archaeological potential. Systematic mapping of these prehistoric monuments is crucial for their protection and conservation. This is especially true for those mounds which are close to roads and villages as they tend to be dismantled for building material. This paper will present the methods used to survey and map the prehistoric stone mounds near Lumbarda, and the conclusions regarding the spatial distribution of the mounds in this prehistoric landscape on the eastern part of the island of Korčula.
11:40 – 12:00
1 2 3 Department of Archaeology, Faculty of Arts, University of Ljubljana, Slovenia,4 Department of Archaeology, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, University of Zagreb, Croatia
Geophysical Prospection with the Low-frequency Electromagnetic Method (CMD- Mini Explorer) and using Integration Analysis of Multidimensional Data
The CMD Mini Explorer (GF Instruments) is a a multi-coil, multi-depth, low-frequency electromagnetic (EM) system that is recently being used as a part of an extensive geophysical survey at several Slovenian and Croatian Iron Age sites (Poštela, Cvinger pri Dolenjskih Toplicah, Kaptol and Kagovac).
The instrument uses alternating current, which passes through the transmitter coil, inducing a primary magnetic field through the ground. When the primary field encounters changes in the soil´s conductivity or magnetic susceptibility, a secondary magnetic field is produced. The resulting electromagnetic field is measured by three receiver coils, which are spaced differently from the transmitter coil (acquiring data on three depth levels). The depth range can be influenced by switching the coil arrangement (Hi depth or Lo depth). The maximum depth while measuring is estimated at 1.8 meters. The CMD calibrates automatically before each survey, thus avoiding instrument drift, which often occurs while using older EM devices, due to moisture sensitivity and temperature changes in the surrounding.
The instrument successfully detects archaeological features, such as highly conductive layers (e.g. ditches), structures built from high resistivity materials (e.g. remains of burial chambers or houses) and ferromagnetic anomalies (e.g. smelting furnaces, metal objects, pottery, cremation graves). Furthermore, a test-polygon is being created in order to investigate how various materials, objects, layers and structures can produce changes in geophysical signals. The CMD simultaneously collects data for two soil properties on each coil, which makes a total of 12 data sets (if measuring with the Hi depth and the Lo depth way of acquisition). Results from different receiver coils can be integrated by using an open source Geographic Information System (qGIS). Integrating multidimensional geophysical data allows us to observe a more coherent depiction of the situation by eliminating noise and enhancing the signals originating from buried archaeological features.
12:05 – 12:25
1 2 4 10 Department of Archaeology, Faculty of Arts, University of Ljubljana, Slovenia, 3 Department of Archaeology, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, University of Zagreb, Croatia, 5 6 Department of Geology, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Engineering, University of Ljubljana, Slovenia 7 Gearh d.o.o., Maribor, Slovenia, 8 Križevci, Slovenia, 9 Centre for Preventive Archaeology, Ljubljana, Slovenia
New developments in integrated studies of the Early Iron Age sites and landscapes in Slovenia and Croatia
The colourful pallet or research methods integrated in the investigations of Early Iron Age sites and landscapes has in the recent years witnessed a tremendous upswing. Archaeology has thus become a melting pot for diverse disciplines, which in a way also met their borders in complex conditions of prehistoric settlements and their landscapes.
However, our primal goal was not to pile vast amounts of data nor to understand one feature, one site, or one region, but to develop a ‘methodical toolbox’, which could be, due to its systematic nature, applied (almost) anywhere.
The first research step was always aimed at the understanding the basic geology of the area, which was studied with the help of ALS derived data. The next step we took was a geological and geomorphological field survey, whereas selected crucial areas were researched also with various geophysical methods.
The ground truthing of the identified features, natural or anthropological, was then conducted to determine the areas for intensive geophysical surveys, using a range of different techniques and analytical methods, covering wide areas of settlements and their surroundings, including iron working areas, flat cremation cemeteries or barrow cemeteries. Our survey incorporated the magnetic method using measurements of total magnetic field by applying corrections of diurnal variations using base station as well as magnetic prospection in gradient mode, GPR method from very low to high frequencies (50–400 MHz), low frequency EM method and measurements of top soil magnetic susceptibility. Furthermore, we have introduced the electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) that adds another dimension to our investigation (similar to GPR) and reveals/identifies underground structures not detectable with other geophysical methods for various reasons, e.g. internal structures of barrow cemeteries/tumuli and deeper buried high resistivity archaeological and geological structures.
With the next step, the geochemical mapping with a pXRF, which we have carried out on one settlement so far, Poštela near Maribor, has invited also chemistry into the circle of disciplines, creating the integrated maps of the researched sites. Preliminary conclusions on archaeologically relevant correlations between different data sets are based on multivariate statistical analyses adopted to specific natural settings on metamorphic rocks. As the last field research step, we have applied low- or medium-invasive archaeological methods as drilling or test-trenching.
The wide range of data, gathered by the use of our ‘toolbox’, which was created by applying different methods deriving from various disciplines, has ‘forced’ us into not only interdisciplinary but rather transdisciplinary research. Under such circumstances, scientists from various disciplines can not only do their research, but have to combine and intertwine it with others to produce common results, which are not a sum of the included data, but its multiplied product.
Coffe break (Library Foyer): 12:30 – 12:50
12:50 – 13:10
Ksaverska cesta 79, 10 000 Zagreb, Croatia
Can computational modeling aid archaeological surveys in mountainous landscapes?
Archaeological surveys in mountainous areas are usually accompanied by a specific set of hindrances. Mountainous landscapes are often densely vegetated, uncultivated and/or under-populated areas where archaeological features remain hidden due to intact flora and limited collective memory. Normally, a very detailed survey including large survey teams would be costly and potentially unproductive. Can GIS play a part in archaeological surveys and pinpoint the locations which can be thoroughly surveyed by few archaeologists?
Least cost analysis is one of the standard practices of GIS in archaeological research, largely used to model possible historical pathways or site interconnectivity. However, the use of this kind of analysis as a survey method has been less studied. For this reason, a case study was undertaken in the medieval southwest Greenland. The areas colonized by Norse at the end of Viking Age were characterized by the North Atlantic setup of transhumance that a permanently occupied farmstead had a seasonally occupied shieling which enabled the continuation of economic activities during summer.
Furthermore, theories suggest the Norse subsistence economy on Greenland manifested itself through an increased level of connection in the community and that a mutual exploit of pastoral resources was undertaken through organised labour involving several farmsteads. This assumption was evaluated in GIS, using least cost analysis, thus building a potential communication network between farmsteads. The communication routes were verified against the positions of known shielings as archaeological evidences of economic pursuits and evaluated for their feasibility during the subsequent field survey.
As the field survey resulted with several new ruins along the routes thus confirming the feasibility of the paths and the likelihood of being used by the Norse, these outcomes suggest least cost analysis can have real applications for archaeological surveys in densely covered and remote mountainous landscapes.
13:15 – 13:35
Department of Archaeology, Faculty of Arts, University of Ljubljana, Slovenia
Field Survey and Archaeological Record in Karst Landscape
Archaeological research in Dalmatian hinterland is still largely lacking. This is especially true for Jasenice area (Zadar region, Croatia) framed by Velebit mountain, the Novigrad sea and karst plateau of the Zrmanja river. A field survey project was started in the spring of 2016. The area surveyed included mostly karst plateau of the Zrmanja river. The survey recorded various archaeological features such as burial mounds, enclosures, hillforts, roman villa, medieval and early modern settlement features, pottery scatters, military structures etc.
Karst areas are characterized by mostly excellent and almost permanent preservation of human material practices. Apart from permanent preservation, another important trait of karst areas is the preservation of long-term material practices as well as the short-term material traces of human action. Thus, material practices have become a permanent presence in landscape micro-topography, preserved and visible as surface stone structures. Accordingly, the karst landscape provides a suitable context for studying intertwined long-term material practices and the ''nature'' of archaeological record.
Archaeological record is commonly understood through notions of cultural and non-cultural formation and transformation processes. The lack of soil in a typically karst landscape provide a context for conceptualizing archaeological record as hybrid. The purpose of this presentation is to demonstrate the constitution of archeological record as hybrid relations through examples provided by field survey.
13:40 – 14:00
1 Department of Archaeology, Faculty of Arts, University of Ljubljana, Slovenia, 2 Department of Tourism and Communication Studies, University of Zadar, Croatia
The Landscape of Conflict and Materiality of War: Jasenice Survey Project
Over the past few decades archaeology has been profoundly transformed, including ever new perspectives, research agendas and subject matters. The discipline is struggling to find its place among the social sciences. Perhaps now, more than ever before, archaeology is less the study of the distant past and more the study of the material. Archaeological elaborations of contemporary themes are substantially increasing. Contested landscapes and landscapes of conflict are an integral part of archaeological studies for quite some time now and those include not only battlefield archaeology but a whole array of discussions regarding various aspects of materiality of conflict.
The project we are presenting is a move in that direction. A systematic field survey commenced during the spring of 2016 at Jasenice municipality area, covering roughly 20km2. This is a typical Dinaric karst landscape where the preservation of human practices in the form of surface stone structures is excellent. The historic event, which has left a truly lasting mark in the landscape, is War in Croatia (1991 – 1995). Various sorts of military structures which constitute a battle line positively dominate the landscape and their presence is quiet staggering. The line stretches in the north-south direction, beginning at the Zrmanja canyon, spreading over the Obrovac – Zrmanja plain and terminates at Velebit peak zone. The structures were built by adding or subtracting the material and as such they are a permanent part of the landscape micro – topography.
The recording and subsequent analysis is enabled by structures preservation, at the level of the individual structure, as well as at the level of the whole complex. Roughly 5% of the battle line was documented during survey.
14:05 – 14:25
1 2Institute of Cartography and Photogrammetry, Faculty of Geodesy, University of Zagreb, Croatia, 2 Archaeological Museum in Zagreb, Croatia
The impact of omitted control points at the geometrical accuracy of 3D-model reconstructed by SfM-algorithm
The recent archaeometric technologies in obtaining the reliable and detailed 3D-geometry from the surface of an archeological artefact or site mostly rely on the use of photogrammetric technologies implementing the Structure from Motion - algorithm. Although it is possible and even desirable to include a reliable calibration field (that consists of a set of well-situated and spatial determined control points) in the process of photogrammetric imaging, very often from practical reasons, it is omitted. However, the scale of the 3D-model, reconstructed by photogrammetry can be determined by use of camera data stored together with every image. In this paper, the geometrical accuracy of 3D-model, achieved by use of SfM algorithm and without use any of control points, is compared to geometrical accuracy of 3D-model, achieved by precise 3D-laser-scanning of the archaeological artefact.
All investigations were done by scanning and photographing of the ancient Roman statue (torso of a Roman Emperor, Vis, marble), kept and exposed in the Lapidarium of Archaeological Museum in Zagreb. The impact of the use of control points on the accuracy of 3D-reconstruction is evaluated and presented. Finally, the necessity of use of control points is discussed.
14:30 – 14:50
1Orešje, Zdenčice 1, Strmec Samoborski, Croatia, 2 Institute of Cartography and Photogrammetry, Faculty of Geodesy, University of Zagreb, Croatia,
Accuracy potential of 3D-reconstruction by use of a smartphone camera
The contemporary smartphones have the built-in cameras of geometric features comparable to digital cameras. Overall, an image quality of smartphone cameras suffers first of all because of a small imaging sensor and a simple objective lens. Although the digital cameras are commonly used for archaeometric tasks, there are situations where the digital cameras are not accessible in-situ at the right moment. The smartphone is easy to find in almost every pocket. That is why photogrammetric abilities of the smartphone cameras were explored.During the international workshop of fortification architecture on the island of Brijuni Minor (in organisation of the Ministry of Culture, the Republic of Croatia, supported by ICOMOS, and the National Park "Brijuni"), a torpedo house has been chosen to produce relevant documentation for 3D-reconstruction and conservation purposes. It has been photographed by advanced digital photogrammetric equipment (NIKON D800E + SIGMA RF20). At the same time, images of the same object were taken by built-in smartphone camera (SAMSUNG S4). From every image set, the 3D-model of the torpedo house was reconstructed by means of "Structure from Motion" algorithm. Both models were oriented to the common coordinate system, and their spatial accuracy as well as level-of-details were compared and discussed.
14:55 - 16:00 - Lunch break (Ground floor - A 018)
16:00 - 17:00 - Poster presentation in the Library Foyer
1 2 4 Department of Archaeology, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, University of Zagreb, 3 Institute of archaeology, Zagreb, Croatia
Experimental pottery production
In the period between 2013 and 2016, a series of lectures and experiments was carried out within a programme called Through experimental archaeology to the technology of pottery production in prehistory. They were targeted towards the students of the Department of Archaeology in Zagreb, and devised by the Centre for Experimental Archaeology, Department of Archaeology in Zagreb at the Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, and Institute of Archaeology in Zagreb. The aim of the programme was to transfer the basic theoretical and practical knowledge regarding the methods of pottery production. The lectures and experiments comprised the whole procedure of pottery production – from the acquisition of raw material and preparation of tempers, making of different paste recipes, forming techniques, surface treatments, testing different methods of decoration, and methods of firing. The poster will present some of the results of the experiments, with the emphasis on reduction firing process.
Department of Archaeology, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, University of Zagreb
Experimental archeology - “Face-pot” from Tilurium
Face pots can be found all over the Roman Empire and they are connected to Roman army. One of such fragment (Gar 10; 899) was found on archaeological site Tilurium, which was a Roman military camp where VII Roman legion was stationed during the early 1st century. The archeological finds confirm that other military units were stationed there as well, of which the last one was the VIII voluntary Roman cohort residing in Tilurium as a permanent military unit from the 2nd to 3rd century. Roman pottery from Tilurium consists of standard pottery assemblage characteristic of the period of the Early Empire which was used in other military camps.
In this paper the reconstruction of process production of “Face-pots” will be shown. The process of production was reconstructed and adapted to contemporary technological conditions. The experimental reconstruction and the firing determined the possible process of production of “Face-pots” as well as their possible origin.
1 University Department of Health studies, University of Split, 2 3 4University Department of Forensic Sciences, University of Split, 5 Rector’s Office, University of Split, Croatia
Application of Multi Slice Computed Tomography in archaeometry: discovering the artifacts beneath St. Paul’s clothes
The remains of Saint Paul - archbishop of Constantinople which are kept in Vodnjan parish church were virtually analyzed. Beneath the bishop’s robe, besides the skeletal remains, various artifacts were found.
The casket containing remains of the saint was imaged by Multi Slice Computed Tomography (MSCT) device, Somatom 16 (Siemens, Erlangen, Germany), with 16 rows of detectors and the spatial resolution of 30 lp/mm. Scanning parameters were: 120 kVp, 162 mA, protocol – Body Angio Routine, Convolutional Kernel B30f. The slice thickness for the acquisition was 160.75 mm and 3 mm for image reconstruction. 2D images were post-processed by Multiplanar Reconstruction (MPR), Volume Rendering Techniques (VRT), and Maximum Intensity Projection (MIP) using software DICOM viewer, Osirix v.3.9.4 (Pixmeo, Geneva, Switzerland).
The examination of the nonskeletal material beneath the clothing revealed the unknown object. First, Hounsfield (HU) values of attenuation coefficients were examined to determine the material of which it was made. Afterward, the 3D model was made, and we concluded that the unknown object was a glass object shaped as a vial. The dimensions of this vial were measured using software Osirix, in VRT view. The vial was compared with previously analyzed vials from the chest found in the same parish church. The aim of this comparison was to determine the resemblance in material, size, shape, and to discuss its purpose.
Filovci 136, Bogojina, Slovenia
Sourcing materials for stone tools manufacture in Prekmurje region with X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF)
This paper presents the analyses of stone tools from four prehistoric archaeological sites in north-eastern Slovenia (the Prekmurje region) - Pod Kotom-sever pri Krogu, Kalinovnjek pri Turnišču, Gornje njive pri Dolgi vasi 2 and Pod Grunti-Pince - that I have carried out during the writing of my master's thesis and in collaboration with the University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and the University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Engineering, Department of Geology.
274 chipped and polished stone tools were analysed with X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) and statistically analysed data with the program Statistica 10. Ten different types of raw materials were identified which were used for manufacturing stone tools - cherts, obsidian, metamorphosed quartzes, serpentinites, diabases, amphibolites, limonite sandstones, high-silica tuffs, quartzites and phyllites.
We conclude that the inhabitants of this area had intensive contacts with the Pannonian Plain, from where the highest quality of raw materials for manufacturing stone tools came to the region in the period from the Middle Copper Age to the Late Bronze Age. They occasionally supplemented the existing sources of raw materials with regional and local raw materials of lower quality. The inhabitants of the province were using the same sources of raw materials over longer periods of time, indicating to the existence of a stable and well-developed social and/or trading network, responsible for supplying raw materials required for manufacturing stone tools at least in the area between the river Mura and the Carpathian Mountains.
Department of Archaeology, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, University of Zagreb
Field survey of the Danube limes in Baranja – Spatial distribution of archaeological material
As part of the Croatian Science Foundation project 6505 Between the Danube and the Mediterranean. Exploring the role of Roman military in the mobility of people and goods in Croatia during the Roman Era (RoMiCRO) in 2014 and 2015 systematic field survey of the Croatian part of the Danube limes in Baranja was conducted.
The aim of the systematic field survey was to establish locations which are connected with the presence of military activity in this area. The methodology of systematic field survey included the distribution of a wide spatial pattern into smaller units in the landscape which define the units of survey (Location). The aim of the survey was to gain all the relevant information about spatial distribution and density of the collected surface archaeological material into the data base (GIS) in order to supply the data about settlement patterns of the area of Baranja through time. The poster will present preliminary results of systematic field survey in the certain parts of the Osijek-Baranja County and established methodology which can provide data about patterns of landscape usage through different periods of human activity in the past.
Visit to Archaeological Museum in Zagreb - conservation and preparation workshop, musem depository and permanent exhibitions