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States and Regions
Teaching of history, geography and civics in Romania
Answers: Mihai Manea
1. Are history, geography and civic education taught in your schools as separate subjects? Please specify grades, types of schools and age of pupils.
Accordingly to the national curriculum history, geography, civics (civic education) is taught separately in the schools in Romania.
Civic education: 7th and 8th grade (13 and 14 years) (gymnasium level)
History and geography: 4th grade (10 years), 5th grade (11 years), 6th grade (12 years), 7th grade (13 years), 8th grade (14 years) - gymnasium level and 9th grade (15 years), 10th grade (16 years), 11th grade (17 years), 12th grade (18 years) - high school
2. How many hours per week is dedicated to these subjects?
The number of hours is different accordingly to the national curriculum and the right of the school to choose different subjects at different levels.
In the gymnasium civic education - 1 hour per week; history and geography between 1 - 2 hours per week and in the high school there are differences accordingly to the type of section of the school: scientific and humanistic 1 - 2 hours per week. History is taught in the 12th grade 2 hours per week because of the Baccalaureate examination.
3. Is national history/geography taught separately or parallel with general history/geography?
In the 4th grade (10 years), 8th grade (14 years) and 12th grade (18 years) students study history and geography of Romania, while in the other grades general (world and European) history and geography in which some aspects on Romania are integrated.
4. What history periods are dealt with in certain grades? What teaching matter is dealt with in particular grades, as other subjects are concerned?
The main history periods are: 4th grade -local history; 5th grade - World History up to year 1000 AD, 6th grade -World History from 1000 AD to the French Revolution, 7th grade - 19th and 20th Century World History, 8th grade - Romanians’ History, 9th grade - World History to 1453, 10th grade - World History from the Renaissance to Napoleon Bonaparte, 11th grade - Europe and the World in the 19th and 20th Century, 12th grade - Romanians’ History. The teaching matters are different from grade to grade accordingly to the educational objectives.
5. Is the National Curriculum for these subjects general or detailed? Is the elaboration of the curriculum left to teachers or is it regulated by the Ministry of Education?
The National Curriculum has a lot of details on the topic, the historical terms (notions), problems to focus on, contents, study-cases. The curriculum is the result of a hard work of a group of teachers, teacher-trainers, methodologists, academics and it is approved by the National Council of Curriculum and the Ministry of Education and Research. There is a special assistance on the methodological aspects from Holland, UK, USA. There are many cases in which the Curriculum offers teachers the right to choose a certain number of periods.
6. Are there alternative textbooks for above-mentioned subjects? Do they need approval from the Ministry of Education?
Accordingly to the agreement between Romania and the World Bank there are 3 alternative textbooks for each subject at the gymnasium level and many others (the free market system): for the high schools - history 23 alternative textbooks, geography 26 alternative textbooks. The textbooks are approved by the National Council of Textbooks’ Approval to the Ministry of Education and Research. The teachers have the right to choose among all these alternative textbooks.
7. Are teachers free to choose among different textbooks (in countries where parallel and alternative textbooks exist)? If not, specify who makes a decision: Ministry of Education, local government, school principals, parents, pupils?
The teachers have the right to choose among all these alternative textbooks.
8. What are the main problems of teaching history, geography and civics in your country?
Basically the main problems on teaching history, geography and civics are connected with methodology and assessment.
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